Understanding Low Level Presence in Agricultural Biotechnology

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This course teaches what Low Level Presence (LLP) is and how associated environmental risks can be assessed.


This course will cover two situations where LLP may occur:

  • Seed that has been imported with the intention of planting
  • Seed that has been imported with the intention of use for food, feed, or processing, but with the potential for unintentional environmental release

The approach to ERA presented in this course does not preclude compliance with international standards or agreements like CODEX Alimentarius or the Cartagena Protocol.

In the context of this course, the word “seed” will be used to mean propagable material. This can refer either to seed that is marketed as seed and intended for planting or seed that is propagable material that is part of a commodity grain or other material intended for use as food, feed, or for processing.

Because this course addresses LLP only in the context of environmental risk, it is only concerned with propagable material, and therefore, seed is the only appropriate term. It is important to recognize that some countries do not import significant quantities of seed for planting, genetically engineered (GE) or otherwise.

Course Goals

The goal of this course is to help regulators develop a consistent, efficient, science-based approach to assess risks of Low Level Presence (LLP). You will learn what LLP of genetically engineered (GE) crops is, how it can occur, and the various ways that regulators can respond to instances of LLP. You will then learn how to use problem formulation in the assessment of environmental risks that could result from LLP.

This course does not substitute for your country’s laws and regulations or suggest how individual LLP situations should be resolved. This course does not cover issues relating to food or feed safety. This course will not cover other types of impacts that may result from instances of LLP, such as financial or market impacts.

We developed eLearning courses to support our capacity building and training efforts. They are offered free of charge, but access is controlled to make sure that students fully understand their nature and prevent inappropriate use. To request access, click here. If you are already enrolled on the Agriculture & Food Systems Institute eLearning platform, please log in after clicking the button below.

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