Best Practices for the Conduct of Animal Studies to Evaluate Crops Genetically Modified for Output Traits

Hartnell GF, Cromwell GL, Dana GR, Lewis AJ, Baker DH, Bedford MR, Klasing KC, Owens FN, Wiseman J

Task Force #5

The rationale for the current project was to provide a platform for the scientific evaluation of crops containing output traits when fed to animals and to promote international harmonization of methods. In addition, the document is intended to provide direction to: 1) a person interested in assessing the scope of studies that should be considered for the evaluation of of animal performance for a particular trait, or 2) a person who wants to evaluate a particular crop containing a nutrient output trait when targeted to a particular species. This document aims to 1) recommend scientifically sound guidelines for the production, harvest, sampling, and analysis of GM crops containing “output” traits (i.e., enhanced protein or amino acids, lipid or fatty acids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants, enzymes, and reduced anti-nutrients); 2) describe the potential advantages of modifying specific output traits in plants; 3) provide a systematic approach to determine what studies should be considered; and 4) provide guidance on the experimental design, conduct, and analysis of poultry, livestock and aquaculture experiments using these crops and their coproducts. The safety of GM crops and the products derived from animals fed GM crops are reviewed elsewhere. This publication should be a valuable reference for animal, poultry, and aquaculture scientists worldwide in academia, industry, and government who desire to conduct bioavailability, performance, processing, and animal-derived food product studies with nutrientenhanced crops and their coproducts.

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References

Chapter 1: Introduction

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Chapter 2: Production, Handling, Storage, and Processing of Crops 

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Chapter 3: Sampling and Analysis of Harvested and Processed Crop Material 

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Chapter 4: Proteins and Amino Acids

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Chapter 5: Carbohydrates 

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Chapter 6: Lipids and Fatty Acids 

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  • Wiseman J (2001b) High energy diets for poultry – effects of diet composition on performance and carcass quality. In Garnsworthy PC, Wiseman J (eds): Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition – 2001. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK, pp. 87–106.
  • Wiseman J (2004) Utilisation of fats and oils and prediction of their energy-yielding value for non-ruminants. Proc Univ Arkansas Feed Conf, Fayetteville, AR.
  • Wiseman J, Agunbiade JA (1998a) Influence of changes in dietary fat and oils on the fatty acids profiles of carcass fat in finishing pigs. Livest Prod Sci. 54:217–227. LINK
  • Wiseman J, Powles J, Salvador F (1998b) Comparison between pigs and poultry in the prediction of the dietary energy value of fats. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 71:1–9. LINK
  • Wiseman J, Redshaw MS, Jagger S, Nute GR, Wood JD (2000) Influence of type and dietary rate of inclusion of oil on meat quality of finishing pigs. Anim Sci. 70:307–315. LINK

Chapter 7: Vitamins and Antioxidants 

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  • Anderson PA, Baker DH, Mistry SP (1978) Experiment determination of the biotin content of maize, barley, sorghum and wheat. J Anim Sci. 47:654–659. LINK
  • Atmaca G (2004) Antioxidant effects of sulfur-containing amino acids. Yonsei Med J. 45:776–788. LINK
  • Augspurger NA, Scherer CS, Garrow TR, Baker DH (2004) S-methylmethionine, a component of foods, has methionine and choline-sparing bioactivity. FASEB J. 18:A545.
  • Baker DH, Yen JT, Jensen AH, Teeter RG, Michel EN, Burns JH (1976) Niacin activity in niacinamide and coffee. Nutr Rep Int. 14:115–122.
  • Baker DH (1995) Vitamin Bioavailability. In Ammerman CB, Baker DH, Lewis AJ (eds): Bioavailability of Nutrients for Animals: Amino Acids, Minerals and Vitamins. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 399– 431. LINK
  • Baker DH, Edwards, III HM, Strunk CS, Emmert JL, Peter CM, Mavromichalis I, Parr TM (1999) Single versus multiple deficiencies of methionine, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and choline elicit surprising growth responses in young chicks. J Nutr. 129:2239– 2246. LINK
  • Baker DH (2001) Bioavailability of minerals and vitamins. In Lewis AJ, Southern LL (eds): Swine Nutrition. CAB Intl., London, pp. 357–379. LINK
  • Baker RTM (2002) Canthaxanthin in aquafeed applications: is there any risk? Trends Food Sci Technol. 12:240–243. LINK
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  • Blair PV, Kobayashi R, Edwards, III HM, Shay NF, Baker DH, Harris RA (1999) Dietary thiamin level influences thiamin levels and enzymatic activities of rat liver. J Nutr. 129:641–649. LINK
  • Chung TK, Baker DH (1990) Riboflavin requirement of chicks fed purified amino acid and conventional maize-soybean meal diets. Poult Sci. 69:1357–1363. LINK
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  • DellaPenna D (2001) Plant metabolic engineering. Plant Physiol. 125:160–163. LINK
  • Deming D, Baker DH, Erdman JW (2002) Relative vitamin A potency of 9-cis and 13-cis B carotene relative to all-trans B-carotene in gerbils. J Nutr. 132: 2709–2712. LINK
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  • Emmert JL, Garrow TA, Baker DH (1996) Development of an experimental diet for determining bioavailable choline concentration, and its application in studies with soybean lecithin. J Anim Sci. 74: 2738–2744. LINK
  • Erdman JE, Jr., Fahey GC, White CB (1986) Effects of purified dietary fiber sources on B-carotene utilization by the chick. J Nutr. 116:2415–2423. LINK
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  • Graham RD, Welch RM (1996) Breeding for staple food crops with high micronutrient density. International Food Policy Research Institute. Washington DC, p. 79.
  • Groff JL, Gropper SS, Hunt SM (1995) Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. West Publishing Co., St. Paul, MN.
  • Grusak MA, DellaPenna D (1999) Improving the nutrient composition of plants to enhance human nutrition and health. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Mol Biol. 50:133–161. LINK
  • Harborne JB (1993) Introduction to ecological biochemistry, 4th ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. LINK
  • Hirakawa DA, Olson LA, Baker DH (1984) Comparative utilization of a crystalline amino acid diet and a methionine-fortified casein diet by young rats and mice. Nutr Res. 4:891–895. LINK
  • Hirschberg J (2001) Carotenoid biosynthesis in flowering plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 4:210–8. LINK
  • Howe JA, Tanumihardjo SA (2006) Carotenoid biofortified maize maintains vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils. J Nutr. 136:2562–2567. LINK
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  • Lee CM, Boileau AC, Boileau TWM, Williams AW, Swanson KS, Heintz KA, Erdman JW (1999) Review of animal models in carotenoid research. J Nutr. 129: 2271–2277. LINK
  • McCall MR, Frei B (1999) Can antioxidant vitamins materially reduce oxidative damage in humans? Free Radical Biol and Med. 26:1034–1053. LINK
  • NRC (1982) United States – Canadian Tables of Feed Composition, 3rd ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (1987) Vitamin Tolerance of Animals. National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (1993) Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (1998) Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (2000, update of 1996) Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle – 2000, 7th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • Oduho G, Baker DH (1993) Quantitative efficacy of niacin sources for the chick: nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, NAD and tryptophan. J Nutr. 123:2201–2206. LINK
  • Oduho G, Chung TK, Baker DH (1993) Menadione nicotinamide bisulfite is a bioactive source of vitamin K and niacin for chicks. J Nutr. 123:737–743. LINK
  • Oduho GW, Han Y, Baker DH (1994) Iron deficiency reduces the efficacy of tryptophan as a niacin precursor for chicks. J Nutr. 124:444–450. LINK
  • Park H, Kreunen SS, Cuttriss AJ, DellaPenna D, Pogson BJ (2002) Identification of the carotenoid isomerase provides insight into carotenoid biosynthesis, prolamellar body formation, and photomorphogenesis. Plant Cell. 14:321–32. LINK
  • Patel K, Baker DH (1996) Supplemental iron, copper, zinc, ascorbate, caffeine and chlortetracycline do not affect riboflavin utilization in the chick. Nutr Res. 16:1943–1952. LINK
  • Quinlivan EP, Roje S, Basset G, Sachar-Hill Y, Gregory, III JF, Hanson AD (2003) The folate precursor p-aminobenzoate is reversibly converted to its glucose ester in the plant cytosol. J Biol Chem. 278:20731–20737. LINK
  • Rains TM, Emmert JL, Baker DH, Shay NF (1997) Minimal thiamin requirement of weanling Sprague-Dawley rats. J Nutr. 127:167–170. LINK
  • Rebeille F, Douce R (1999) Folate synthesis and compartmentation in higher plants. In Kruger NJ, Hill SA, Ratcliffe RG (eds): Regulation of Primary Metabolic Pathways in Plants. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 53–99. LINK
  • Saier MH Jr (1998) Genome sequencing and informatics: new tools for biochemical discoveries. Plant Physiol. 117:1129–33. LINK
  • Sauberlich HE (1985) Bioavailability of vitamins. Prog Food Nutr Sci. 9:1–33. LINK
  • Scherer CS, Baker DH (2000) Excess dietary methionine markedly increases the vitamin B6 requirement of young chicks. J Nutr. 130:3055–3058. LINK
  • Shintani D, DellaPenna D (1998) Elevating the vitamin E content of plants through metabolic engineering. Science. 282:2098–2100. LINK
  • Solomons NW (2001) Vitamin A and carotenoids. In Bowman BA, Russell RM (eds): Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 8th ed. ILSI Press, Washington, DC, pp 127–145. LINK
  • Southern LL, Baker DH (1981) Bioavailable pantothenic acid in cereal grains and soybean meal. J Anim Sci. 53: 403–408. LINK
  • Tanksley SD, McCouch SR (1997) Seed banks and molecular maps: unlocking genetic potential from the wild. Science. 277:1063–1066. LINK
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  • Webster CD, Lim CE (2002) Introduction to fish nutrition. In Webster CD, Lim CE (eds): Nutrient Requirements and Feeding of Finfish for Aquaculture. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, pp. 1–27. LINK
  • Wedekind KJ, Beyer RS, Combs GF Jr (1998) Is selenium addition necessary in pet foods. FASEB J. 2:A823.
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  • Ye XD, Al-Babili S, Kloti A, Zhang J, Lucca P, Beyer P, Potrykus I (2000) Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science. 287:303– 305. LINK
  • Yen JT, AH Jensen AH, Baker DH (1976) Assessment of the concentration of biologically available vitamin B6 in maize and soybean meal. J Anim Sci. 42:866– 870. LINK

Chapter 8: Minerals 

  • Adeola O, Larence BV, Sutton AL, Cline TR (1995) Phytase-induced changes in mineral utilization in zinc-supplemented diets for pigs. J Anim Sci. 73:3384–3391. LINK
  • Adeola O (1996) Effect of supplemental phytase on trace mineral availability. In Coelho MB, Kornegay ET (eds): Phytase in animal nutrition and waste management, BASF Reference Manual DC9601. BASF, Mt. Olive, NJ, pp. 435–450.
  • Anderson PC (1998) Crop biotechnology for feed improvement. In Wiseman J, Varley MA, Chadwick JP (eds): Progress in Pig Science, Proceedings of the 58th Easter School in Agricultural Sciences. Nottingham Univ. Press, Nottingham, UK, pp. 265–277.
  • Braude R (1967) Copper as a stimulant in pig feeding (Cuprum pro pecunia). World Rev Anim Prod. 3:69–82.
  • CAST (2002) Animal diet modification to decrease the potential for nitrogen and phosphorus pollution. Issue Paper No. 21. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames, IA. LINK
  • Carter SD, Cromwell GL, Westerman PW, Park JS, Pettey LA (2003) Prediction of nitrogen, phosphorus, and dry matter excretion by swine based on diet chemical composition, feed intake, and nutrient retention. Proc. 9th International Symposium on Animal, Agricultural, and Food Processing Wastes, October 12–15, 2003, Durham, NC. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI, pp 285–295. LINK
  • Cromwell GL, Stahly TS, Coffey RD, Monegue HJ, Randolph JH (1993) Efficacy of phytase in improving the bioavailability of phosphorus in soybean meal and corn-soybean meal diets for pigs. J Anim Sci. 71:1831–1840. LINK
  • Cromwell GL, Calvert CC, Cline TR, Crenshaw JD, Crenshaw TD, Easter RA, Ewan RC, Hamilton CR, Hill GM, Lewis AJ, Mahan DC, Miller ER, Nelssen JL, Pettigrew JE, Tribble LF, Veum TL, Yen JT, NCR-42 Committee on Swine Nutrition (1999) Variability among sources and laboratories in nutrient analyses of corn and soybean meal. J Anim Sci. 77:3262–3273. LINK
  • Cromwell GL, Pierce JL, Sauber TE, Rice DW, Ertl DS, Raboy V (1998a) Bioavailability of phosphorus in low-phytic acid corn for growing pigs. J Anim Sci. 76(Suppl. 2):54.
  • Cromwell GL, Pierce JL, Stilborn HL, Rice DW, Ertl, DS Raboy V (1998b) Bioavailability of phosphorus in lowphytic acid corn for chick. Poult Sci. 77(Suppl. 1):117.
  • Cromwell GL, Traylor SL, Lindemann MD, Sauber TE, Rice DW (2000) Bioavailability of phosphorus in low-oligosaccharide, low-phytate soybean meal for pigs. J Anim Sci. 78(Suppl. 2):71.
  • Hill GM, Cromwell GL, Crenshaw TD, Dove R, Ewan RC, Knabe DA, Lewis AJ, Liba l GW, Mahan DC, Shurson GC, Southern LL, Veum TL, NCR-42 and S-145 Regional Swine Nutrition Committees (2000) Growth promotion effects and plasma changes from feeding high dietary concentrations of zinc and copper to weanling pigs (regional study). J Anim Sci. 78:1010–1016. LINK 
  • Jongbloed AW, Mroz Z, Kemme PA (1992) The effect of supplementary Aspergillus niger phytase in diets for pigs on concentration and apparent digestibility of dry matter, total phosphorus, and phytic acid in different sections of the alimentary tract. J Anim Sci. 70:1159–1168. LINK
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  • Nelson TS, Ferrara LW, Storer NL (1968) Phytate phosphorus content of feed ingredients derived from plants. Poult Sci. 47:1372–1374.
  • NRC (2005) Mineral Tolerance of Animals, 2nd ed. National Academy Press, Washington DC. LINK
  • NRC (2000, update of 1996) Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle – 2000, 7th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (1993) Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (1998) Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (1982) United States – Canadian Tables of Feed Composition, 3rd ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • Raboy V, Dickinson DB, Neuffer MG (1990) A survey of maize kernel mutants for variation in phytic acid. Maydica. 35:385–390. LINK
  • Spencer JD, Allee GL, Sauber TE (2000) Phosphorus bioavailability and digestibility of normal and genetically modified low-phytate corn for pigs. J Anim Sci. 78:675–681. LINK
  • Underwood EJ, Suttle NF (1999) The mineral nutrition of livestock. CABI Publishing, New York.
  • Ullah AH, Sethumadhavan K, Mullaney EJ, Ziegelhoffer T, Austin-Phillips S (2002) Cloned and expressed fungal phyA genes in alfalfa produces a stable phytase. Biochem Biophy Res Comm. 290:1343–1348. LINK

Chapter 9: Enzymes

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  • Beauchemin KA, Colombatto D, Morgavi DR (2004) A rationale for the development of feed enzyme products for ruminants. Can J Anim Sci. 84:23–36. LINK
  • Bedford MR, Apajalahti J (2001) Implications of diet and enzyme supplementation on the microflora of the intestinal tract. In van der Poel AFB, Vahl JL, Kwakkel RP (eds): Advances in Nutritional Technology. Proc 1st World Feed Conf. Wageningen Pers, Utrecht, pp. 197–206.
  • Bedford MR, Classen HL (1992) Reduction of intestinal viscosity through manipulation of dietary rye and pentosanase concentration is effected through changes in the carbohydrate composition of the intestinal aqueous phase and results in improved growth rate and food conversion efficiency of broiler chicks. J Nutr. 122:560–569. LINK
  • Bedford MR, Classen HL (1993) An in vitro assay for prediction of broiler intestinal viscosity and growth when fed rye-based diets in the presence of exogenous enzymes. Poult Sci. 72:137–143. LINK
  • Bedford MR, Schulze H (1998) Exogenous enzymes for pigs and poultry. Nutr Res Rev. 11:91–114. LINK
  • Beudeker RF, Pen J (1995) Development of plant seeds expressing phytase as a feed additive. 2nd European Symposium on Feed Enzymes, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, pp. 225–228.
  • Black JL (2001) Variation in nutritional value of cereal grains across livestock species. Proc 13th Aust Poult Sci Symp. 13:22–29.
  • Campbell GL, Bedford MR (1992) Enzyme applications for monogastric feeds: a review. Can J Anim Sci. 72:449–466. LINK
  • Chesson A (1994) Manipulation of fibre degradation: an old theme revisited. In Lyons TP, Jacques KA (eds): Biotechnology in the Feed Industry. Nottingham University Press, Loughborough, UK, 83–98.
  • Colombatto D, Morgavi DP, Furtado, AF, Beauchemin KA (2003) Screening of exogenous enzymes for ruminant diets: relationship between biochemical characteristics and in vitro ruminal degradation. J Anim Sci. 81:2628–2638. LINK
  • Cowan WD, Huyghebaert G, Hughes RJ (2001) Comparison of the influence of the methodology used for determining the metabolisable energy of soybean meal. Proc 13th Aust Poult Sci Symp. 13:164–167.
  • Cowan WD, Pettersson DR, Rasmussen PB (1999a) The influence of multi-component pectinase enzymes on energy and amino acid availability in vegetable proteins. Proc Aust Poult Sci Symp. 11:85–88.
  • Cowan WD, Pettersson DR, Ross GM (1999b) Investigations into the effect of xylanases and pectinases on broiler performance in sorghum based diets with low levels of wheat. Proc Aust Poult Sci Symp. 11:112–115.
  • Cowieson AJ, Acamovic T, Bedford MR (2004) The effects of phytase and phytic acid on the loss of endogenous amino acids and minerals from broiler chickens. Br Poult Sci. 45:101–108. LINK
  • Geraert PP, Rouffineau F, Barrier-Guillot B (2001) Nonstarch polysaccharide enzymes and viscosity: The relationship revisited. Aust Poult Sci Symp. 13:208–211.
  • Hatten LF, Ingram DR, Pittman ST (2001) Effect of phytase on production parameters and nutrient availability in broilers and laying hens: A review. J Appl Poult Res. 10:274–278. LINK
  • Hristov A, McAllister TA, Cheng K-J (1998) Exogenous enzymes for ruminants: modes of action and potential applications. Western Nutr Conf Proc 17th Conf., Edmonton, Alberta, pp. 51–61.
  • Ibrahim S, Jacob JP, Blair R (2000) Phytase supplementation to reduce phosphorus excretion of broilers. J Appl Poult Res. 8:414–425. LINK
  • Igbasan FA, Manner K, Miksch G, Borriss R, Farouk A, Simon O (2000) Comparative studies on the in vitro properties of phytases from various microbial origins. Archiv Tierernaehr. 53:353–373. LINK
  • Jackson ME, Fodge DW, Hsiao HY (1999) Effects of betamannanase in corn-soybean meal diets on laying hen performance. Poult Sci. 78:1737–1741. LINK
  • Jackson ME, Geronian K, Knox A, McNab J, McCartney E (2004) A dose-response study with the feed enzyme beta-mannanase in broilers provided with cornsoybean meal based diets in the absence of antibiotic growth promoters. Poult Sci. 83:1992–1996. LINK
  • Jagger S, Wiseman J, Cole DJA, Craigon J (1992) Evaluation of inert markers for the determination of ileal and faecal apparent digestibility values in the pig. Br J Nutr. 68:729 –739. LINK
  • Klein Holkenborg ABM, Braun J (2001) Effect of a hydrophobic coating on phytase granulates on pelleting stability and bio-efficacy in broilers. 13th Eur Symp Poult Nutr. 13:341.
  • Kocher A, Choct M, Ross G, Broz J, Chung TK (2003) Effects of enzyme combinations on apparent metabolizable energy of corn-soybean meal-based diets in broilers. J Appl Poult Res. 12:275–283. LINK
  • Lee JT, Bailey CA, Cartwright AL (2003) Beta-mannanase ameliorates viscosity-associated depression of growth in broiler chickens fed guar germ and hull fractions. Poult Sci. 82:1925–1931. LINK
  • Malathi V, Devegowda G (2001) In vitro evaluation of nonstarch polysaccharide digestibility of feed ingredients by enzymes. Poult Sci. 80:302–305. LINK
  • Marteau P, Minekus M, Havenaar R, Huis in’t Veld JH. (1997) Survival of lactic acid bacteria in a dynamic model of the stomach and small intestine – validation and the effects of bile. J Dairy Sci. 80:1031–1037. LINK
  • McCoy RA, Behnke KC, Hancock JD, McEllhiney RR (1994) Effect of mixing uniformity on broiler chick performance. Poult Sci. 73:443–451. LINK
  • Moughan PJ (1999) In vitro techniques for the assessment of the nutritive value of feed grains for pigs: a review. Aust J Agric Res. 50:871–879.
  • Nsereko VL, Morgavi DP, Rode LLM, Beauchemin KA, McAllister TA (2000a) Effects of fungal enzyme preparations on hydrolysis and subsequent degradation of alfalfa hay fiber by mixed rumen microorganisms in vitro. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 88:153–170.
  • Pen J, Verwoerd TC, Van Paridon PA, Beudeker RF, van den Elken PJM, Geerse K, van der Klis JD, Versteegh HAJ, Van Ooyen AJJ, Hoekema A (1993) Phytase-containing transgenic seeds as a novel feed additive for improved phosphorus utilization. Biotechnology. 11:811–814. LINK
  • Rodehutscord M (1995) Phytase and carbohydrases in diets for rainbow trout. Proc 2nd Eur Symp Feed Enzymes. pp. 229–235.
  • Rodehutscord M, Pfeffer E (1995) Effects of supplemental microbial phytase on phosphorus digestibility and utilisation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Water Sci Technol. 31:143–147. LINK
  • Rosen GD (2002) Microbial phytase in broiler nutrition. In Garnsworthy PC, Wiseman J (eds): Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition 2002. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK, pp. 105–118.
  • Sales J, Janssens GPJ (2003a) Acid-insoluble ash as a marker in digestibility studies: a review. J Anim Feed Sci. 12:383-401. LINK
  • Sales J, Janssens GPJ (2003b) The use of markers to determine energy metabolizability and nutrient digestibility in avian species. World Poultry Sci J. 59:314-327. LINK
  • Schutte JB (1990) Nutritional implications and metabolizable energy value of D-xylose and L-arabinose in chicks. Poult Sci. 69:1724–1730. LINK
  • Schutte JB, de Jong J, Polziehn R, Verstegen MWA (1991) Nutritional implications of D-xylose in pigs. Br J Nutr. 66:83–93. LINK
  • Scott TA, Silversides FG, Zijlstra RT (2003) Effect of pelleting and enzyme supplementation on variation in feed value of wheat-based diets fed to broiler chicks. Can J Anim Sci. 83:257–263. LINK
  • Selle PH, Ravindran V, Caldwell RA, Bryden WL (2000) Phytate and phytase: consequences for protein utilisation. Nutr Res Rev. 13:255–278. LINK
  • Selle PH, Ravindran V, Bryden WL, Scott T (2006) Influence of dietary phytate and exogenous phytase on amino acid digestibility in poultry: A review. J Poult Sci. 43:89-103. LINK
  • Silversides FG, Bedford MR (1999) Effect of pelleting temperature on the recovery and efficacy of a xylanase enzyme in wheat-based diets. Poult Sci. 78:1184–1190. LINK
  • Sohail SS, Bryant MM, Roland DA Sr, Apajalahti JHA, Pierson EEM (2003) Influence of Avizyme 1500 on performance of commercial Leghorns. J Appl Poult Res. 12:284–290. LINK
  • Waldroup PW (2002) Fears regarding phytase use said to be unjustified. Feedstuffs. 74(14):18–19. LINK
  • Wang Y, McAllister TA, Rode LM, Beauchemin KA, Morgavi DP, Nsereko VL, Iwaasa, AD, Yang W (2001) Effects of an exogenous enzyme preparation on microbial protein synthesis, enzyme activity and attachment to feed in the Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec). Br J Nutr. 85:325–332. LINK
  • Wilson JW, Ward NE (2002) Pelleting stability of Ronozyme P (CT) phytase in commercial feedmills: An update. Poult Sci. 81:141.
  • Yu P, McKinnon J, Maenz DD, Olkowski AA, Racz VJ, Christensen DA (2003) Enzymic release of reducing sugars from oat hulls by cellulase, as influenced by Aspergillus ferulic acid esterase and Trichoderma xylanase. J Agric Food Chem. 51:218–223. LINK

Chapter 10: Antinutrients

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  • Athanasiadou S, Kyriazakis I, Jackson F, Coop RL (2001) Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: In vitro and in vivo studies. Vet Parasitol. 99: 205–219. LINK
  • Baker DH (1986) Problems and pitfalls in animal experiments designed to establish dietary requirements for essential nutrients. J Nutr. 116: 2339–2349. LINK
  • Barry TN, McNabb WC (1999) The implications of condensed tannins on the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants. Br J Nutr. 81:263–272. LINK
  • Bell JM (1993) Factors affecting the nutritional value of canola meal: A review. Can J Anim Sci. 73:679–697. LINK
  • Blaak EE, Saris WHM (1995) Health aspects of various digestible carbohydrates. Nut Res. 15:1547–1573. LINK
  • Bravo L (1998) Polyphenols: Chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev. 56:317–333. LINK
  • Bullard RW, York JO (1996) Screening grain sorghums for bird tolerance and nutritional quality. Crop Prot. 15:159–165. LINK
  • Casaubon-Huguenin MT, Avila-Gonzalez E, Vazquez-Pelaez C, Trigo F, Lascurain R, Zenteno E (2004) The effect of raw full-fat soybean and its lectin on the nutrition and pigmentation of broilers. J Agric Food Chem. 52:5702–5708. LINK
  • Cipollini D (2004) Stretching the limits of plasticity: Can a plant defend against both competitors and herbivores? Ecology. 85:28–37. LINK
  • Classen HL, Bedford MR (1999) The use of enzymes to improve the nutritive value of poultry feeds. In Wiseman J, Garnsworthy PC (eds): Recent developments in poultry nutrition 2. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK, pp. 285–308.
  • Cowieson AJ (2005) Factors that affect the nutritional value of maize for broilers. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 119:293–305. LINK
  • FAO (1996) Biotechnology and food safety. Report of a joint FAO/WHO consultation. Food and nutrition paper 61, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. LINK
  • Feil B (2001) Phytic acid. J New Seeds. 3:1–35. Foley WJ, Moore BD (2005) Plant secondary metabolites and vertebrate herbivores – from physiological regulation to ecosystem function. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 8:430–435. LINK
  • Francis G, Makkar HPS, Becker K (2001) Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture. 199:197–227. LINK
  • Gilani CS, Cockell KA, Sepehr E (2005) Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods. J AOAC Internatl. 88:967–987. LINK
  • Hajos G et al. (1995) Biological effects and survival of trypsin inhibitors and the agglutinin from soybean in the small intestine of the rat. J Agric Food Chem. 43:165–170.
  • Hoffmann EM, Muetzel S, Becker K (2003) The fermentation of soybean meal by rumen microbes in vitro reveals different kinetic features for the inactivation and the degradation of trypsin inhibitor protein. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 106:189–197. LINK
  • Houdijk JGM, Kyriazakis I, Jackson F, Huntley JF, Coop RL (2005) Effects of protein supply and reproductive status on local and systemic immune responses to teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep. Vet Parasitol. 129:105–117. LINK
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  • ILSI (2003) Best practices for the conduct of animal studies to evaluate crops genetically modified for input traits. International Life Sciences Institute, Washington DC. Available from: LINK
  • ILSI (2004) Nutritional and safety assessments of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Safety. 3:36–104. Available from: LINK
  • Leeson S, Diaz GJ, Summers JD (1995) Poultry metabolic disorders and mycotoxins. Lucknow International, Lucknow, Canada.
  • Liener IE (1975) Effects of anti nutritional and toxic factors on the quality and utilization of legume proteins. Marcel Dekker, New York.
  • Liener IE (1980) Toxic constituents of plant foodstuffs, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York.
  • Lott JNA, Ockenden I, Raboy V, Batten GD (2000) Phytic acid and phosphorus in crop seeds and fruits: A global estimate. Seed Sci Res. 10:11–33. LINK
  • Lowry JB, McSweeney CS, Palmer B (1996) Changing perceptions of the effect of plant phenolics on nutrient supply in the ruminant. Aust J Agric Res. 47:829–842. LINK
  • Makkar HPS (2003) Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Ruminant Research. 49:241–256. LINK
  • Makkar HPS, Becker K (1999) Plant toxins and detoxification methods to improve feed quality of tropical seeds. Asian-Aus J Anim Sci. 12:467–480. LINK
  • Martinez C, Ros G, Periago MJ, Lopez G, Ortuno J, Rincon F (1996) Phytic acid in human nutrition. Food Science and Technology International. 2:201–209.
  • McMahon LR, McAllister TA, Berg BP, Majak W, Acharya SN, Popp JD, Coulman BE, Wang Y, Cheng KJ (2000) A review of the effects of forage condensed tannins on ruminal fermentation and bloat in grazing cattle. Can J Plant Sci 80:469–485. LINK
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  • Min BR, Miller D, Hart SP, Tomita G, Loetz E, Sahlu T (2003) Direct effects of condensed tannins on gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing angora goats. J Anim Sci. 81:23–24.
  • Molan AL, Hoskin SO, Barry TN, McNabb WC (2000) Effect of condensed tannins extracted from four forages on the viability of the larvae of deer lungworms and gastrointestinal nematodes. Vet Rec. 147:44–48. LINK
  • Novak WK, Haslberger AG (2000) Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods. Food Chem Tox. 38:473–483. LINK
  • Pusztai A, Ewen SW, Grant G, Peumans WJ, Van Damme EJ, Coates ME, Bardocz S (1995) Lectins and also bacteria modify the glycosylation of gut surface receptors in the rat. Glycoconj J. 12:22–35. LINK
  • Raboy V (2001) Seeds for a better future: ’low phytate’ grains help to overcome malnutrition and reduce pollution. Trends Plant Sci. 6:458–462. LINK
  • Ramirez-Restrepo CA, Barry TN (2005) Alternative temperate forages containing secondary compounds for improving sustainable productivity in grazing ruminants. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 120:179–201. LINK
  • Thompson LU (1988) Antinutrients and blood glucose. Food Technology 42:123–132.
  • Thompson LU (1993) Potential health benefits and problems associated with antinutrients in foods. Food Research International 26:131–149. LINK
  • Urbano G, L.pez-Jurado M, Aranda P, Vidal-Valverde C, Tenorio E, Porres J (2000) The role of phytic acid in legumes: Antinutrient or beneficial function? J Physiol Biochem. 56:283–294. LINK
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  • Watson DH (1987) Natural toxicants in food: Progress and prospects. Ellis Horwood Ltd, Chichester, England.
  • Welch RM (2002) Breeding strategies for biofortified staple plant foods to reduce micronutrient malnutrition globally. J Nutr. 132:495S–499S. LINK
  • WHO (1995) Application of the principles of substantial equivalence to the safety evaluation of foods and food components from plants derived by modern biotechnology. Geneva, Switzerland. LINK

Chapter 11: Protocols for Evaluating Feedstuffs with Genetically Modified Output Traits: Poultry Meat Production

  • Akiba Y, Sato K, Takahashi K, Matsushita K, Komiyama H, Tsunekawa H, Nagao H (2001) Meat color modification in broiler chickens by feeding yeast Phaffia rhodozyma containing high concentrations of astaxanthin. J Appl Poult Res. 10:154–161. LINK
  • Amezcua CM (2004) Content and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in distillers dried grains with solubles in chicks. Poult Sci. 83:971–976. LINK
  • Ammerman CB, Baker DH, Lewis AJ (eds) (1995) Bioavailability of Nutrients for Animals. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. LINK
  • An G-H, Song J-Y, Chang K-S, Lee B-D, Chae H-S, Jang B-G (2004) Pigmentation and delayed oxidation of broiler chickens by the red carotenoid, astaxanthin, from chemical synthesis and the yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 17:1309–1314. LINK
  • Anon (2005) Livestock Marketing Information Services, Denver, CO.
  • ASAE (2003) Method of determining and expressing fineness of feed materials by sieving. Pages 588–592 in ASAE Standards. American Society Agricultural Engineers, 2950 Niles Rd., St. Joseph, MI 49085.
  • Baker DH (2003) Ideal amino acid patterns for broiler chicks. In D’Mello JPF (ed): Amino Acids in Animal Nutrition. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 223–235. LINK
  • Batal AB, Dale NM (2006) True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility of distillers dried grains with solubles. J Appl Poult Res. 15:89–93. LINK
  • Bedford MR, Partridge GG (eds) (2001) Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK. LINK
  • Bou R, Guardiola F, Barroeta AC, Codony R (2005) Effect of dietary fat sources and zinc and selenium supplements on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. Poult Sci. 84:1129–1140. LINK
  • Bou R, Guardiola F, Tres A, Barroeta AC, Codony R (2004) Effect of dietary fish oil, alpha-tocopheryl acetate, and zinc supplementation on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. Poult Sci. 83:282–292. LINK
  • Broz J, Beardsworth P (2002) Recent trends and future developments in the use of feed enzymes in poultry nutrition. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 345–362. LINK
  • Carr B (2002) Carbohydrate chemistry of the feedstuffs used for poultry. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 39–66. LINK
  • Castaneda MP, Hirschler EM Sams AR (2005) Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments. Poult Sci. 84:143–147. LINK 
  • Chartrin P, Meteau K, Juin H, Bernadet MD, Guy G, Larzul C, Remignon H, Mourot J, Duclos MJ, Baeza E (2006) Effects of intramuscular fat levels on sensory characteristics of duck breast meat. Poult Sci. 85:914–922. LINK
  • Collins N E, Moran ET Jr, Stilborn HL (2001) Influence of yellow dent corn hybrids having different kernel characteristics yet similar nutrient composition on broiler production. J Appl Poult Res. 10:228–235. LINK
  • Coon C, Leske K, Seo S (2002) The availability of calcium and phosphorus in feedstuffs. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 151–180. LINK
  • Cortinas L, Villaverde C, Galobart J, Baucells MD, Codony R, Barroeta AC (2004) Fatty acid content in chicken thigh and breast as affected by dietary polyunsaturation level. Poult Sci. 83:1155–1164. LINK
  • D’Mello JPF (ed) (2000) Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition. CABI Publishing, New York. LINK
  • D’Mello JPF (ed) (2003) Amino Acids in Animal Nutrition. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK. LINK
  • Daghir NJ, Farran MT, Barbour GW, Beck MM (2003) Nutritive value of high-oil corn grown under semi-arid conditions and its impact on broiler performance and carcass composition. Poult Sci. 82:267–271. LINK
  • Fasina YO, Garlich JD, Classen HL, Ferket PR, Havenstein GB, Grimes JL, Qureshi MA, Christensent VL (2004) Response of turkey poults to soybean lectin levels typically encountered in commercial diets. 1. Effect on growth and nutrient digestibility. Poult Sci. 83:1559–1571. LINK
  • FASS (Federation of Animal Science Societies) (1999) Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. Federation of Animal Science Societies, Savoy, IL.
  • Fatufe AA, Timmler R, Rodehutscord M (2004) Response to lysine intake in composition of body weight gain and efficiency of lysine utilization of growing male chickens from two genotypes. Poult Sci. 83:1314–1324. LINK
  • Fritts CA, Waldroup PW (2003) Effect of source and level of vitamin D on live performance and bone development in grower broilers. J Appl Poult Res. 12:45–2. LINK
  • Fuller MF (ed) (1991) In Vitro Digestion for Pigs and Poultry. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Gabert VM, J.rgensen H, Nyachoti CM (2001) Bioavailability of amino acids in feedstuffs for swine. In Lewis AJ, Southern LL (eds), Swine Nutrition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 151–186. LINK
  • Hartnell GF (2004) GM Crops–Shock Maker or Shock Breaker. Biennial Conference of the Flour Miller’s Council of Australia and the Stock Feed Manufacturers’ Council of Australia Proceedings, March 23–24, 2004, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 41–48.
  • Huang KH, Li X, Ravindran V, Bryden WL (2006) Comparison of apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients measured with broilers, layers, and roosters. Poult Sci. 85:625–634. LINK
  • Johnsen PB, Kelly CA (1990) A technique for the quantitative sensory evaluation of farm-raised catfish. J Sen Studies. 4:189–99. LINK
  • Kidd MT, Morgan GW Jr, Price CJ, Welch PA, Fontana EA (2001a) Enzyme supplementation to corn and soybean meal diets for broilers. J Appl Poult Res. 10:65–70. LINK
  • Kidd MT, Morgan GW Jr, Zumwalt CD, Price CJ, Welch PA, Brinkhaus FL, Fontana EA (2001b) α-Galactosidase enzyme supplementation to corn and soybean meal broiler diets. J Appl Poult Res. 10:186–193. LINK
  • Klasing KC (2000) Comparative Avian Nutrition. CABI International, Oxon, UK. LINK
  • Kocher A, Choct M, Ross G, Broz J, Chung T K (2003) Effects of enzyme combinations on apparent metabolizable energy of corn-soybean meal-based diets in broilers. J Appl Poult Res. 12:275–283. LINK
  • Lemme A, Ravindran V, Bryden WL (2004) Ileal digestibility of amino acids in feed ingredients for broilers. World’s Poult Sci J. 60:423–435.
  • Lumpkins BS, Batal AB (2005) The bioavailability of lysine and phosphorus in distillers dried grains with solubles. Poult Sci. 84:581–586. LINK
  • Lyon BG, Smith DP, Lyon CE, Savage EM (2004) Effects of diet and feed withdrawal on the sensory descriptive and instrumental profiles of broiler breast fillets. Poult Sci. 83:275–281. LINK
  • McNab JM (2000) Rapid metabolizable energy assays. In D’Mello JPF (ed): Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 307–316. LINK
  • Mead GC (2004) Poultry Meat Processing and Quality. CRC Press, London, UK.
  • Mehaffey JM, Pradhan SP, Meullenet JF, Emmert JL, McKee SR, Owens CM (2006) Meat quality evaluation of minimally aged broiler breast fillets from five commercial genetic strains. Poult Sci. 85:902–908. LINK
  • Meilgaard MC, Civille GV, Carr BT (1999) Sensory Evaluation Techniques, 3rd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Meng X, Slominski BA, Nyachoti CM, Campbell LD, Guenter W (2005) Degradation of cell wall polysaccharides by combinations of carbohydrase enzymes and their effect on nutrient utilization and broiler chicken performance. Poult Sci. 84:37–47. LINK
  • Miles RD, Henry PR, Sampath VC, Shivazad M, Comer CW (2003) Relative bioavailability of novel amino acid chelates of manganese and copper for chicks. J Appl Poult Res. 12:417–423. LINK
  • Mountney GJ (1989) Poultry Products Technology. Foods Products Press, New York.
  • Northcutt JK (2006) Factors affecting poultry meat quality [accessed 2006 May 24], pp. 1–7. Available from: LINK
  • NRC (National Research Council) (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th ed. National Academy Press, Washington DC. LINK
  • Onderci M, Sahin N, Sahin K, Cikim G, Aydin A, Ozercan I, Aydin S (2006) Efficacy of supplementation of a-amylase-producing bacterial culture on the performance, nutrient use, and gut morphology of broiler chickens fed a corn-based diet. Poult Sci. 85:505–510. LINK
  • Ouhida I, Perez JF, Anguita M, Gasa J (2002) Influence of b-mannase on broiler performance, digestibility, and intestinal fermentation. J Appl Poult Res. 11:244–249. LINK
  • Palmquist DL (2002) An appraisal of fats and fatty acids. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 87–98. LINK
  • Parsons CM (2002) Digestibility and bioavailability of protein and amino acids. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK pp. 115–136. LINK
  • Ponte PIP, Ferreira LMA, Soares MAC, Aguiar MANM, Lemos JPC, Mendes I, Fontes CMGA (2004) Use of cellulases and xylanases to supplement diets containing alfalfa for broiler chicks: Effects on bird performance and skin color. J Appl Poult Res. 2004:412–420. LINK
  • Rodriguez ML, Ortiz LT, Alzueta C, Rebole A, Trevino J (2005) Nutritive value of high-oleic acid sunflower seed for broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 84:395–402. LINK
  • Sales J, Janssens GPJ (2003) The use of markers to determine energy metabolizability and nutrient digestibility in avian species. World’s Poult Sci J. 59:314–327.
  • Sams AR (2000) Poultry Meat Processing. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. LINK
  • Senkoylu N, Dale N (2006) Nutritional evaluation of a high-oil sunflower meal in broiler starter diets. J Appl Poult Res. 15:40–47. LINK
  • Shelton J L, Southern LL (2006) Effects of phytase addition with or without a trace mineral premix on growth performance, bone response variables, and tissue mineral concentrations in commercial broilers. J Appl Poult Res. 15:94–102. LINK
  • Silversides FG, Scott TA, Bedford MR (2004) The effect of phytase enzyme and level on nutrient extraction by broilers. Poult Sci. 83:985–989. LINK
  • Sirri F, Tallarico N, Meluzzi A, Franchini A (2003) Fatty acid composition and productive traits of broiler fed diets containing conjugated linoleic acid. Poult Sci. 82:1356–1361. LINK
  • Smithard R (2002) Secondary plant metabolites in poultry nutrition. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp 237–278. LINK
  • Stone H, Sidel JL (2004) Sensory evaluation practices, 3rd ed. Food Science and Technology, International Series. Academic Press, New York. LINK
  • Taylor MA, George B, Hyun Y, Nemeth MA, Karunanandaa K, Lohrmann TT, Hartnell G F (2004) Broiler performance and carcass parameters of broiler fed diets containing lysine maize. Poult Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):315 (Abstr).
  • USDA-FAS (United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service) (2006) Livestock and Poultry: World Markets and Trade. Circular Series DL&P 1-06. United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, Washington, DC, pp. 1–26. LINK
  • Waldroup PW, Keen CA, Yan F, Zhang K (2006) The effect of levels a-galactosidase enzyme on performance of broilers fed diets based on corn and soybean meal. J Appl Poult Res. 15:48-57. LINK
  • Whitehead C (2002) Vitamins in Feedstuffs. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 181–190. LINK
  • Wu YB, Ravindran V, Morel PCH, Hendriks WH, Pierce J (2004) Evaluation of a microbial phytase, produced by solid-state fermentation, in broiler diets. 1. Influence on performance, toe ash contents and phosphorus equivalency estimates. J Appl Poult Res. 13:373–383. LINK
  • Xu ZR, Wang MQ, Mao HX, Zhan XA, Hu CH (2003) Effects of l-carnitine on growth performance, carcass composition, and metabolism of lipids in male broilers. Poult Sci. 82:408–413. LINK
  • Yan F, Fritts CA, Waldroup PW (2003) Evaluation of modified dietary phosphorus levels with and without phytase supplementation on live performance and fecal phosphorus levels in broiler diets. 1. Full-term feeding recommendations. J Appl Poult Res. 12:174–182. LINK
  • Zhang, WF, Li DF, Lu WQ, Yi GF (2003) Effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides on broiler performance and intestinal microflora. Poult Sci. 82:657–663. LINK 
  • Zornig WO, Pesti GM, Bakalli RI (2001) The essential fatty acid requirements of broilers. J Appl Poult Res. 10:41–45. LINK

Chapter 12: Protocols for Evaluating Feedstuffs with Genetically Modified Output Traits: Poultry Egg Production

  • Batal AB, Dale NM (2006) True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility of distillers dried grains with solubles. J Appl Poult Res. 15:89–93. LINK
  • Bean LD, Leeson S (2003) Long-term effects of feeding flaxseed on performance and egg fatty acid composition of brown and white hens. Poult Sci. 82:388–394. LINK
  • Bedford MR, Partridge GG (eds) (2001) Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK. LINK
  • Broz J, Beardsworth P (2002) Recent trends and future developments in the use of feed enzymes in poultry nutrition. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 345–362. LINK
  • Carr B (2002) Carbohydrate chemistry of the feedstuffs used for poultry. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 39–66. LINK
  • Coon C, Leske K, Seo S (2002) The availability of calcium and phosphorus in feedstuffs. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 151–180. LINK
  • D’Mello JPF (ed) (2000) Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition. CABI Publishing, New York. LINK
  • D’Mello JPF (ed) (2003) Amino Acids in Animal Nutrition. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK. LINK
  • Fasina YO, Garlich JD, Classen HL, Ferket PR, Havenstein GB, Grimes JL, Qureshi MA, Christensent VL (2004) Response of turkey poults to soybean lectin levels typically encountered in commercial diets. 1. Effect on growth and nutrient digestibility. Poult Sci. 83:1559–1571. LINK
  • FASS (Federation of Animal Science Societies) (1999) Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. Federation of Animal Science Societies, Savoy, IL.
  • Filardi RDS, Junquerira OM, de Laurentiz AC, Casartelli EM, Rodrigues EA, Ara.jo LF (2005) Influence of different fat sources on the performance of egg quality, and lipid profile of egg yolks of commercial layers in the second laying cycle. J Appl Poult Res. 14:258–264. LINK
  • Fuller MF (ed) (1991) In Vitro Digestion for Pigs and Poultry. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Hartnell GF (2004) GM Crops–Shock Maker or Shock Breaker. In Biennial Conference of the Flour Miller’s Council of Australia and the Stock Feed Manufacturers’ Council of Australia Proceedings, March 23-24, 2004, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 41–48.
  • Huang KH, Li X, Ravindran V, Bryden WL (2006) Comparison of apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients measured with broilers, layers, and roosters. Poult Sci. 85:625–634. LINK
  • Jacob J, Miles R (2000) Designer and Specialty Eggs. Univ Florida Extension, Inst Food Agric Sci FACTSHEET PS-51. LINK
  • Johnsen PB, Kelly CA (1990) A technique for the quantitative sensory evaluation of farm-raised catfish. J Sen Studies. 4:189–99. Klasing KC (2000) Comparative Avian Nutrition. CABI International, Oxon, UK. LINK
  • Lawless HT, Heymann H (1999) Sensory Evaluation of Food Principles and Practices. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York. LINK
  • Leeson S, Caston L (2004) Enrichment of eggs with lutein. Poult Sci. 83:1709–1712. LINK
  • Leeson S, Caston LJ (2003) Vitamin enrichment of eggs. J Appl Poult Res. 12:24–26. LINK
  • Lemme A, Ravindran V, Bryden WL (2004) Ileal digestibility of amino acids in feed ingredients for broilers. World’s Poult Sci J. 60:423–435.
  • Lumpkins BS, Batal AB (2005) The bioavailability of lysine and phosphorus in distillers dried grains with solubles. Poult Sci. 84:581–586. LINK
  • McNab JM (2000) Rapid metabolizable energy assays. In D’Mello JPF (ed): Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 307–316. LINK
  • Meilgaard MC, Civille GV, Carr BT (1999) Sensory Evaluation Techniques, 3rd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Mori AV, Mendonca CX Jr, Almeida CRM, Pita MCG (2003) Supplementing hen diets with vitamins A and E affects egg yolk retinol and α-tocopherol levels. J Appl Poult Res. 12:106–114. LINK
  • Mountney GJ (1989) Poultry Products Technology. Foods Products Press, New York.
  • NRC (National Research Council) (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th ed. National Academy Press, Washington DC. LINK
  • Palmquist DL (2002) An appraisal of fats and fatty acids. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 87–98. LINK
  • Parsons CM (2002) Digestibility and bioavailability of protein and amino acids. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 115–136. LINK
  • Sales J, Janssens GPJ (2003) The use of markers to determine energy metabolizability and nutrient digestibility in avian species. World’s Poult Sci J. 59:314–327. LINK
  • Sims JS (1998) Designer eggs and their nutritional and functional significance. World Rev Nutr Diet. 83:89–101. LINK
  • Smithard R (2002) Secondary plant metabolites in poultry nutrition. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 237–278. LINK
  • Stone H, Sidel JL (2004) Sensory evaluation practices, 3rd ed. Food Science and Technology, International Series. Academic Press, New York. LINK
  • Taha FA (2003) World Consumption and Production of Eggs. The Poultry Sector in Middle-income Countries and its Food Requirements: The Case in Egypt. Outlook Rep No. (WRS03-02), pp. 13–14. LINK
  • The Poultry Site (2005) [accessed 29 May 2006] Available from: LINK
  • Whitehead C (2002) Vitamins in Feedstuffs. In McNab JM, Boorman KN (eds): Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Poult Sci Symp Ser No 26. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 181–190. LINK
  • Zornig WO, Pesti GM, Bakalli RI (2001) The essential fatty acid requirements of broilers. J Appl Poult Res. 10:41–45. LINK

Chapter 13: Protocols for Evaluating Feedstuffs with Genetically Modified Output Traits: Swine

  • Aberle ED, Forrest JC, Gerrard DE, Mills EW, Hedrick HB, Judge ME, Merkel RA (2001) Principles of Meat Science. Kendall Hunt, Dubuque, IA. LINK
  • Adeola O (2001) Digestion and balance techniques in pigs. In Lewis AJ, Southern LL (eds): Swine nutrition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 903–916. LINK
  • AMSA (American Meat Science Association) (1995) Research Guidelines for Cookery, Sensory Evaluation, and Instrumental Tenderness Measurements of Fresh Meat. American Meat Science Association, Chicago, IL.
  • Ammerman CB, Baker DH, Lewis AJ (1995) Bioavailability of Nutrients for Animals. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. LINK
  • Anon (2005) Livestock Marketing Information Services, Denver, CO.
  • FASS (Federation of Animal Science Societies) (1999) Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. Federation of Animal Science Societies, Savoy, IL.
  • Fuller MF (ed) (1991) In vitro digestion for pigs and poultry. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Gabert VM, J.rgensen H, Nyachoti CM (2001) Bioavailability of amino acids in feedstuffs for swine. In Lewis AJ, Southern LL (eds), Swine nutrition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 151–186. LINK
  • NPPC (2000) Pork composition and quality assessment procedures. National Pork Producers Council, Des Moines, IA.
  • NRC (National Research Council) (1998) Nutrient requirements of swine, 10th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK

Chapter 14: Protocols for Evaluating Feedstuffs with Genetically Modified Output Traits: Lactating Ruminants

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  • Beckman JL, Weiss WP (2005) Nutrient digestibility of diets with different fiber to starch ratios when fed to lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 88:1015–1023. LINK
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  • Bequette BJ, Backwell FRC, Crompton LA (1998) Current concepts of amino acid and protein metabolism in the mammary gland of the lactating ruminant. J Dairy Sci. 81:2540–2559. LINK
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  • Blackwelder JT, Hopkins BA, Diaz DE, Whitlow LW, Brownie C (1998) Milk production and plasma gossypol of cows fed cottonseed and oilseed meals with or without rumen-undegradable protein. J Dairy Sci. 81:2934–2941. LINK
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  • Bowman GR, Beauchemin KA, Shelford JA (2003) Fibrolytic enzymes and parity effects on feeding behavior, salivation, and ruminal pH of lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 86:565–575. LINK
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  • Chen KH, Huber JT, Simas J, Theurer CB, Yu P, Chan SC, Santos FAP, Wu Z, Swingle RS, DePeters EJ (1995) Effect of enzyme treatment or steam-flaking of sorghum grain on lactation and digestion in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 78: 1721–1727. LINK
  • Chilliard Y, Ferlay A, Rouel J, Lamberet G (2003) A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis. J Dairy Sci. 86:1751–770. LINK
  • Cochran RC, Galyean ML (1994) Measurement of in vivo forage digestion by ruminants. In Fahey GC, Collins M, Mertens DR, Moser LE (eds): Forage Quality, Evaluation, and Utilization. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp. 613–643.
  • Cochran WG, Cox GM (1957) Experimental Designs, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • Coulon JB, Delacroix-Buchet A, Martin B, Pirisi A (2004) Relationships between ruminant management and sensory characteristics of cheeses: A review. Lait. 84:221–241. LINK
  • Coulon, JB, Delacroix-Buchet A, Martin B, Pirisi A (2005) Facteurs de production et qualit. sensorielle des fromages. INRA, Prod Anim. 18:49–62. LINK
  • D’Mello JPF (ed) (2000) Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition. CABI Publishing, New York. LINK
  • Dado RG, Allen MS (1996) Enhanced intake and production of cows offered ensiled alfalfa with higher neutral detergent fiber digestibility. J Dairy Sci. 79:418–428. LINK
  • Delahunty CM, Drake MA (2004) Sensory character of cheese and its evaluation. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (eds): Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, Vol 1 General Aspects. Elsevier, London, pp. 455–487. LINK
  • DePeters EJ, Cant JP (1992) Nutritional factors influencing the nitrogen composition of bovine milk: A review. J Dairy Sci. 75:2043–2070. LINK
  • Doepel L, Pacheco D, Kennelly JJ, Hanigan MD, Lopez IF, Lapierre H (2004) Milk protein synthesis as a function of amino acid supply. J Dairy Sci. 87:1279–1297. LINK
  • Doreau M, Ottou JF (1996) Influence of niacin supplementation on in vivo digestibility and ruminal digestion in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 79:2247–2254. LINK
  • Drackley JK, Beaulieu AD, Elliott JP (2001) Responses of milk fat composition to dietary fat or nonstructural carbohydrates in Holstein and jersey cows. J Dairy Sci. 84:1231–1237. LINK
  • Drake MA (2004) Defining dairy flavors. J Dairy Sci. 87:777–784. LINK
  • Drake MA, Civille GV (2003) Flavor Lexicons. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2:33–40. LINK
  • Drake MA, Karagul-Yuceer Y, Cadwallader KR, Civille GV, Tong PS (2003) Determination of the sensory attributes of dried milk powders and dairy ingredients. J Sens Stud. 18:199–216. LINK
  • Elliott JP, Drackley JK, Weigel DJ (1996) Digestibility and effects of hydrogenated palm fatty acid distillate in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 79:1031–1039. LINK
  • Ensminger ME, Oldfield JE, Heinemann WW (1990) Feeds & Nutrition Digest, 2nd ed. The Ensminger Publishing Company, Clovis, CA.
  • Eun J-S, Beauchemin KA (2005) Effects of a proteolytic feed enzyme on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production. J Dairy Sci. 88:2140–2153. LINK
  • FAOSTAT database (2005) Available from: LINK
  • Feng P, Hoover WH, Miller JK, Blauwiekel R (1993) Interactions of fiber and nonstructural carbohydrates on lactation and ruminal function. J Dairy Sci. 76:1324–1333. LINK
  • Friggens N, Emmans GC, Robertson S, Chamberlain DG, Whittemore CT, Oldham JD (1995) The lactational responses of dairy cows to amount of feed and to the source of carbohydrate energy. J Dairy Sci. 78:1734- 1744. LINK
  • Gonthier C, Mustafa AF, Berthiaume R, Petit HV, Martineau R, Ouellet DR (2004) Effects of feeding micronized and extruded flaxseed on ruminal fermentation and nutrient utilization by dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 87:1854–1863. LINK
  • Grummer RR (1991) Effect of feed on the composition of milk fat. J Dairy Sci. 74:3244–3257. LINK
  • Grummer RR, Slark K, Bertics SJ, Luck ML, Barmore JA (1996) Soybeans versus animal sources of rumen degradable protein and fat for early lactation dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 79:1809–1816. LINK
  • Hammond BG, Vicini JL, Hartnell GF, Naylor MW, Knight CD, Robinson EH, Fuchs RL, Padgette SR (1996) The feeding value of soybeans fed to rats, chickens, catfish and dairy cattle is not altered by genetic incorporation of glyphosate tolerance. J Nutr. 126:717–727. LINK
  • Hartnell GF (2004) GM Crops – Shock Maker or Shock Breaker. In Biennial Conference of the Flour Miller’s Council of Australia and the Stock Feed Manufacturers’ Council of Australia Proceedings, March 23–24, 2004, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 41–48.
  • Hartnell GF, Hatfield RD, Mertens DR, Martin NP (2005) Potential benefits of plant modification of alfalfa and corn silage to dairy diets. In Proceedings of the 20th Annual Southwest Nutrition and Management Conference, Tempe, AZ, pp. 156– 172.
  • Harvatine DI, Firkins JL, Eastridge ML (2002) Whole cottonseed as a forage substitute fed with ground or steam-flaked corn: Digestibility and performance. J Dairy Sci. 85:1976–1987. LINK
  • Hutjens MF (2005) Feed efficiency and its economic impact on large herds. In Proceedings of the 20th Annual Southwest Nutrition and Management Conference, Tempe, AZ.
  • Ivan SK, Grant RJ, Weakley D, Beck J (2005) Comparison of a corn silage hybrid with high cell-wall content and digestibility with a hybrid of lower cell-wall content on performance of Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 88:244–254. LINK
  • Jones DF, Weiss WP, Palmquist DL (2000) Short communication: Influence of dietary tallow and fish oil on milk fat composition. J Dairy Sci. 83:2024–2026. LINK
  • Jurgens MH (2002) Animal Feeding and Nutrition, 9th ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co, Dubuque, IA.
  • Kellems RO, Church DC (2002) Livestock Feeds & Feeding, 5th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. LINK
  • Kincaid RL, Garikipati DK, Nennich TD, Harrison JH (2005) Effect of grain source and exogenous phytase on phosphorus digestibility in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 88:2893–2902. LINK
  • Knowlton KF, McKinney JM, Cobb C (2002) Effect of direct-fed fibrolytic enzyme formulation on nutrient intake, partitioning, and excretion in early and late lactation Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 85:3328–3335. LINK
  • Korhonen M, Vanhatalo A, Huhtanen P (2002) Effect of protein source on amino acid supply, milk production, and metabolism of plasma nutrients in dairy cows fed grass silage. J Dairy Sci. 85:3336– 3351. LINK
  • Kung L, Cohen MA, Rode LM, Treacher RJ (2002) The effect of fibrolytic enzymes sprayed onto forages and fed in a total mixed ratio to lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 85:2396–2402. LINK
  • Kung L, Treacher RJ, Nauman GA, Smagala AM, Endres KM, Cohen MA (2000) The effect of treating forages with fibrolytic enzymes on its nutritive value and lactation performance of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 83:115–122. LINK
  • Lawless HT, Heymann H (1999) Sensory Evaluation of Food Principles and Practices. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York. LINK
  • Leiva E, Hall MB, Van Horn HH (2000) Performance of dairy cattle fed citrus pulp or corn products as sources of neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates. J Dairy Sci. 83:–866-2875. LINK
  • Majee DN, Schwab CG, Bertics SJ, Seymour WM, Shaver RD (2003) Lactation performance by dairy cows fed supplemental biotin and a B-vitamin blend. J Dairy Sci. 86:2106–2112. LINK
  • Martin B, Verdier-Metz I, Buchin S, Hurtaud C, Coulon JB (2005) How do the nature of forages and pasture diversity influence the sensory quality of dairy livestock products? Anim Sci. 81:205–212. LINK
  • McAllister TA, Hristov AN, Beauchemin KA, Rode LM, Cheng K-J (2001) Enzymes in ruminant diets. In Bedford MR Partridge GG (eds): Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, UK, pp. 273–298 LINK
  • Meilgaard MC, Civille GV, Carr BT (1999) Sensory Evaluation Techniques, 3rd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Minor DJ, Trower SL, Strang BD, Shaver RD, Grummer RR (1998) Effects of nonfiber carbohydrate and niacin on periparturient metabolic status and lactation of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 81:189–200. LINK
  • Miron J, Yosef E, Ben-Ghedalia D, Chase LE, Bauman DE, Solomon R (2002) Digestibility by dairy cows of monosaccharide constituents in total mixed rations containing citrus pulp. J Dairy Sci. 85:89–94. LINK
  • Montgomery DC (2001) Design and Analysis of Experiments, 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • NRC (National Research Council) (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (National Research Council) (2007) Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • Oba M, Allen MS (2000) Effects of brown midrib 3 mutation in corn silage on productivity of dairy cows fed two concentrations of dietary neutral detergent fiber: 3. Digestibility and microbial efficiency. J Dairy Sci. 83:1350–1358. LINK
  • Ouellet DR, Lapierre H, Chiquette J (2003) Effects of corn silage processing and amino acid supplementation on the performance of lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 86:3675–3684. LINK
  • Owens F, Soderlund S, Hinds M (2002) Developing new specialty grains for ruminants. In Proceedings 13th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium, pp. 48–70. LINK
  • Palmquist DL (1991) Influence of source and amount of dietary fat on digestibility in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 74:1354–1360. LINK
  • Palmquist DL, Beaulieu AD, Barbano DM (1993) Feed and animal factors influencing milk fat composition. J Dairy Sci. 76:1753–1771. LINK
  • Pantoja J, Firkins JL, Eastridge ML (1996) Fatty acid digestibility and lactation performance by dairy cows fed fats varying in degree of saturation. J Dairy Sci. 79:429–437. LINK
  • Park AF, Shirley JE, Titgemeyer EC, Meyer MJ, VanBaale MJ, VandeHaar MJ (2002) Effect of protein level in prepartum diets on metabolism and performance of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 85:1815–1828. LINK
  • Pruekvimolphan S, Grummer RR (2001) Lactation responses to sulfur-containing amino acids from feather meal or rumen-protected methionine. J Dairy Sci. 84:2515–2522. LINK
  • Qiu X, Eastridge ML, Wang Z (2003) Effects of corn silage hybrid and dietary concentration of forage ndf on digestibility and performance by dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 86:3667–3674. LINK
  • Ramaswamy N, Baer RJ, Schingoethe DJ, Hippen AR, Kasperson KM, Whitlock LA (2001) Composition and flavor of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil, extruded soybeans, or their combination. J Dairy Sci. 84:2144–2151. LINK
  • Ruppert LD, Drackley JK, Bremmer DR, Clark JH (2003) Effects of tallow in diets based on corn silage or alfalfa silage on digestion and nutrient use by lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 86:593–609. LINK
  • Sannes RA, Messman MA, Vagnoni DB (2002) Form of rumen-degradable carbohydrate and nitrogen on microbial protein synthesis and protein efficiency of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 85:900–908. LINK
  • Santini FJ, Lu CD, Potchoiba MJ, Fernandez JM, Coleman SW (1992) Dietary fiber and milk yield, mastication, digestion, and rate of passage in goats fed alfalfa hay. J Dairy Sci. 75:209–219. LINK
  • Santos FAP, Santos JEP, Theurer CB, Huber JT (1998) Effects of rumen-degradable protein on dairy cow performance: A 12-year literature review. J Dairy Sci. 81:3182–3213. LINK
  • Schingoethe DJ, Stegeman GA, Treacher RJ (1999) Response of lactating dairy cows to a cellulase and xylanase enzyme mixture applied to forages at the time of feeding. J Dairy Sci. 82:996–1003. LINK
  • Schmidely P, Lloret-Pujol M, Bas P, Rouzeau A, Sauvant D (1999) Influence of feed intake and source of dietary carbohydrate on milk yield and composition, nitrogen balance, and plasma constituents of lactating goats. J Dairy Sci. 82:747–755. LINK
  • Speedy A, Sansoury R (Eds) (1991) Feeding Dairy Cows in the Tropics. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. LINK
  • Stern MD, Bach A, Calsamiglia S (1997) Alternative techniques for measuring nutrient digestion in ruminants. J Anim Sci. 75:2256–2276. LINK
  • Stobbs T, Sandland RL (1972) The use of a Latin square change-over design with dairy cows to detect differences in the quality of tropical pastures. Austr J Exp Agric Anim Husb. 12:463–469. LINK
  • Stone H, Sidel JL (2004) Sensory Evaluation Practices, 3rd ed. Food Science and Technology, International Series. Academic Press, New York. LINK
  • Sullivan JL, Huber JT, Price RL, Harper JM (1993) Comparison of digestibility, nutritive value, and storage characteristics of different forms of cottonseed in diets fed to lactating dairy cows. J Anim Sci. 71:2837–2842. LINK
  • Sutton JD, Phipps RH, Beever DE, Humphries DJ, Hartnell GF, Vicini JL, Hard DL (2003) Effect of method of application of a fibrolytic enzyme product on digestive processes and milk production in Holstein-Friesian cows. J Dairy Sci. 86:546–556. LINK
  • Taylor CC, Allen MS (2005) Corn grain endosperm type and brown midrib 3 corn silage: Site of digestion and ruminal digestion kinetics in lactating cows. J Dairy Sci. 88:1413–1424. LINK
  • Teh TH, Trung LT, Jia ZH, Gipson TA, Ogden KB, Sweeney TF (1994) Varying amounts of rumen inert fat for high producing goats in early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 77:253–258. LINK
  • Tempelman RJ (2004) Experimental design and statistical methods for classical and bioequivalence hypothesis testing with an application to dairy nutrition studies. J Anim Sci. 82:E162–E172. LINK
  • Van Horn HH, Wilcox CJ (Eds) (1992) Large Dairy Herd Management. American Dairy Science Association, Urbana, IL.
  • Van Soest PJ (1982) Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, 2nd ed. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.
  • Van Straalen WM, Dooper FMH, Antoniewicz AM, Kosmala I, Van Vuuren AM (1993) Intestinal digestibility in dairy cows of protein from grass and other measured with mobile nylon bag and other methods. J Dairy Sci. 76:2970–2981. LINK
  • Vicini JL, Bateman HG, Bhat MK, Clark JH, Erdman RA, Phipps RH, Van Amburgh ME, Hartnell GF, Hintz RL, Hard DL (2003) Effect of feeding supplemental fibrolytic enzymes or soluble sugars with malic acid on milk production. J Dairy Sci. 86:576–585. LINK
  • Ward AT, Wittenberg KM, Przybylski R (2002) Bovine milk fatty acid profiles produced by feeding diets containing solin flax and canola. J Dairy Sci. 85:1191–1196. LINK
  • Weiss WP (1994) Estimation of digestibility of forages by laboratory methods. In Fahey, GC, Collins M, Mertens DR, Moser LE (Eds): Forage Quality, Evaluation, and Utilization. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp. 644–681.
  • Weiss WP (2001) Effect of dietary vitamin C on concentrations of ascorbic acid in plasma and milk. J Dairy Sci. 84:2302–2307. LINK
  • Weiss WP (2004) Macromineral digestion by lactating dairy cows: Factors affecting digestibility of magnesium. J Dairy Sci. 87:2167–2171. LINK
  • Weiss WP, Wyatt DJ (2000) Effect of oil content and kernel processing of corn silage on digestibility and milk production by dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 83:351–358. LINK
  • Weiss WP, Wyatt DJ (2003) Effect of dietary fat and vitamin E on alpha-tocopherol in milk from dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 86:3582–3591. LINK
  • Yang WZ, Beauchemin KA, Rode LM (2000) A comparison of methods of adding fibrolytic enzymes to lactating cow diets. J Dairy Sci. 83:2512–2520. LINK

Chapter 15: Protocols for Evaluating Feedstuffs with Genetically Modified Output Traits: Growing and Finishing Ruminants

  • Aberle ED, Forrest JC, Gerrard DE, Mills EW, Hedrick HB, Judge MD, Merkel RA (2001) Principles of Meat Science. Kendall Hunt, Dubuque, IA. LINK
  • Arieli A, Shahar K, Mabjeesh SJ, Zamwel S, and Sklan D (1999) Estimation of the digestible energy of ruminant feedstuffs by the combined bag technique. J Dairy Sci. 82:566–573. LINK
  • Broderick GA, Merchen NR (1992) Markers for quantifying microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. J Dairy Sci. 75:2618–2632. LINK
  • Croston D, Pallott G (1994) Planned Sheep Production. Iowa State University Press, Ames IA.
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  • FAOSTAT data (2005). Available from: LINK.
  • FASS (Federation of Animal Science Societies) (1999) Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. FASS, Savoy, IL.
  • Field TG, Taylor RW (2002) Beef Production and Management Decisions. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
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  • Ferrell CL (2004) Nutrient requirements: Ruminants. In Pond WG, Bell AW (eds): Encyclopedia of Animal Science. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, pp. 678-680.
  • Field TG, Taylor RW (2002) Beef Production and Management Decisions, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River NJ. LINK
  • Larson DA (1995) Dietary preference and its relationship to feed intake. In Symposium: Intake by Feedlot Cattle. Okla. Agric. Exp. Stn. P-942. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, pp. 312–325.
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  • NRC (National Research Council) Update (2000) Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • NRC (National Research Council) (2007) Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. LINK
  • Owens FN, Hanson CF (1992) External and internal markers for appraising site and extent of digestion in ruminants. J Dairy Sci. 75:2605–2617. LINK
  • Preston TR (1986) Better utilization of crop residues and by-products in animal feeding: research guidelines. 2. A practical manual for research workers. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 50/2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy [accessed 2006 May 2006]. Available from: LINK.
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  • Stern MD, Bach A, Calsamiglia S (1997) Alternative techniques for measuring nutrient digestion in ruminants. J Anim Sci. 75:2256–2276. LINK
  • Vanzant ES, Cochran RC, Titgemeyer EC (1998) Standardization of in situ techniques for ruminant feedstuff evaluation. J Anim Sci. 76:2717–2729. LINK

Chapter 16: Protocols for Evaluating Feedstuffs with Genetically Modified Output Traits: Aquaculture

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  • Aksnes A (1995) Growth, feed efficiency and slaughter quality of salmon, Salmo salar L., given diets with different ratios of carbohydrate and protein. Aquacult Nutr. 1:241–248. LINK
  • Aksnes A, Hjertnes T, Opstvedt J (1996) Comparison of two assay methods for determination of nutrient and energy digestibility in fish. Aquaculture. 140:343–359. LINK
  • Andersen F, Lorentzen M, Waagb. R, Maage A (1997) Bioavailability and interactions with other micronutrients of three dietary sources in Atlantic salmon, (Salmo salar) smolts. Aquacult Nutr. 3:239–246. LINK
  • Apines MJ, Satoh S, Kiron V, Watanabe T, Nasu N, Fujita S (2001) Bioavailability of amino acids chelated and glass embedded zinc to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, fingerlings. Aquacult Nutr. 7:221–228. LINK
  • Austreng E (1978) Digestibility determination in fish using chromic oxide marking and analysis of contents from different segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Aquaculture. 13:265–272.
  • Bell MV, Batty RS, Dick JR, Fretwell K, Navarro JC, Sargent JR (1995) Dietary deficiency of docosahexaenoic acid impairs vision at low light intensities in juvenile herring (Clupea harengus L.). Lipids. 30:443–449. LINK
  • Benzie IFF (1996) Lipid peroxidation: A review of causes, consequences, measurement and dietary influences. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 47:233–261. LINK
  • Bjerkeng B, Hamre K, Hatlen B, Wathne E (1999) Astaxanthin deposition in fillets of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Fed two dietary levels of astaxanthin in combination with three levels of alpha-tocopherol acetate. Aquacult Res. 30:637–646. LINK
  • Bransden MP, Carter CG (1999) Effect of processing soybean meal on the apparent digestibility of practical diets for the greenback flounder Rhombosolea tapirina (Günther). Aquacult Res. 30:719–723. LINK
  • Bronstad I, Bjerk.s I, Waagb. R (2002) The need for riboflavin supplementation in high and low energy diets for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. parr. Aquacult Nutr. 8:209–220. LINK
  • Brown P (1993) Comparison of fecal collection methods for determining phosphorus absorption in rainbow trout. In Kaushik S, Luquet P (eds): Fish Nutrition in Practice. INRA, Paris, pp. 443–447.
  • Brunson JF, Romaire RP, Reigh RC (1997) Apparent digestibility of selected ingredients in diets for white shrimp Penaeus setiferus L. Aquacult Nutr. 3:9–16. LINK
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