A Review of the Environmental Safety of Vip3Aa

Agriculture & Food Systems Institute
January 1, 2012

In 1996, a novel 88 kDa protein with insecticidal properties was isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This protein was distinguishable from the well-studied Bt Cry proteins, differing by sequence homology and activity spectrum. In addition, the protein was secreted by the cells, rather than stored within the bacteria as crystals, and it was synthesized during the vegetative phase of bacterial growth. Subsequently, a family of related proteins with similar properties was identified, and these proteins were designated Vegetative Insecticidal Proteins (Vip). A gene producing one member of this protein family, Vip3Aa, has been used to confer lepidopteran insect resistance to maize and cotton plants, alone and in combination with genes encoding Cry proteins. This paper provides a comprehensive review of publicly available data, peer-reviewed studies, and regulatory decision summaries relevant to the environmental risk assessment of the Vip3Aa protein, as expressed in maize and cotton plants. Together this body of information indicates that the Vip3Aa protein is unlikely to cause harm to non-target organisms and does not alter the biology of maize or cotton plants in ways that would increase weediness or invasiveness.

The monograph has been peer-reviewed in accordance with Agriculture & Food Systems Institute’s Peer Review Policy for Self-Published Works and is available in:

Suggested format for citation: Agriculture & Food Systems Institute. 2012. A Review of the Environmental Safety of Vip3Aa. Agriculture & Food Systems Institute, Washington DC.

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